We are also witnessing strong flows of protectionism in the global economy. The African Continental Free Trade Area only came into force when 22 of the signatory countries ratified the agreement, which happened in April 2019, when The Gambia became the 22nd country to ratify it.   By August 2020, there are 54 signatories, of which at least 30 have ratified and 28 have deposited their instruments of ratification.    The three countries that have ratified their ratifications but have not yet deposited are Cameroon, Angola and Somalia, although Morocco is also documented as ratified.   Maria Filipa Seara e Pereira consults with the World Bank`s Regional Trade Integration Unit (ETIRI).